Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis tendon graft directly fixed to cortical bone: 5-year results

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Mar;13(2):81-91. doi: 10.1007/s00167-004-0553-1. Epub 2004 Oct 16.


Forty-three patients who had undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft were prospectively reviewed at 5-year follow-up. All had suffered subacute or chronic tears of the ligament. At surgery, the femoral tunnel was drilled first through the antero-medial portal. The correct position of the femoral and tibial guide wire was checked fluoroscopically. A cortical fixation to the bone was achieved in the femur with a Mitek anchor, directly passing the two tendons in the slot of the anchor, and in the tibia with an RCI screw, supplemented with a spiked washer and bicortical screw. Rehabilitation was aggressive, controlled and without braces. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, KT-1000 arthrometer, and Cybex dynamometer were employed for clinical evaluation. A radiographic study was also performed. At the 5-year follow-up all the patients had recovered full range of motion and 2% of them complained of pain during light sports activities. Four patients (9.5%) reported giving-way symptoms. The KT-1000 side-to-side difference was on average 2.1 mm at 30 lb, and 68% of the knees were within 2 mm. The final IKDC score showed 90% satisfactory results. There was no difference between the 2-year and 5-year evaluations in terms of stability. Extensor and flexor muscle strength recovery was almost complete (maximum deficit 5%). Radiographic study showed a tunnel widening in 32% of the femurs and 40% of the tibias. A correlation was found between the incidence of tibial tunnel widening and the distance of the RCI screw from the joint (the closer the screw to the joint, the lower the incidence of widening). In conclusion, we can state that, using a four-strand hamstring graft and a cortical fixation at both ends, we were able to achieve satisfactory 5-year results in 90% of the patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / diagnostic imaging
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Athletic Injuries / complications
  • Athletic Injuries / physiopathology
  • Athletic Injuries / surgery
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Femur / surgery
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / etiology
  • Knee Injuries / complications
  • Knee Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology
  • Knee Injuries / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology
  • Orthopedic Procedures / methods*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiography
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Recovery of Function
  • Recurrence
  • Reoperation
  • Tendons / transplantation*
  • Tibia / surgery
  • Tissue Transplantation / methods
  • Treatment Outcome