Effects of movement duration and visual feedback on visual and proprioceptive components of prism adaptation

J Mot Behav. 1994 Sep;26(3):257-66. doi: 10.1080/00222895.1994.9941681.


While looking through laterally displacing prisms, subjects pointed sagittally 80 times at an objectively straight-ahead target, completing a reciprocal out-and-back pointing movement ever 1, 3, or 6 s. Visual feedback was available early in the pointing movement or only late at the end of the movement. Aftereffect measures of adaptive shift (obtained after every 10 pointing trials) showed adaptive change only in limb position sense (i.e., proprioceptive adaptation) when movement duration was 1 s, regardless of visual feedback condition; but as movement duration increased, adaptive change in the eye position sense (i.e., visual adaptation) increased while proprioceptive adaptation decreased, especially for the late visual feedback condition. Regardless of visual feedback condition, proprioceptive adaptation showed the maximal rate of growth with the 1-s movement duration, whereas visual adaptation showed maximal growth with the 6-s movement duration. These results provide additional support for a model of adaptive spatial mapping in which the direction of strategically flexible coordination (guidance) between eye and limb (and consequently the locus of adaptive spatial mapping) is jointly determined by movement duration and timing of visual feedback. An additional effect of movement duration is to determine the rate of discordant inputs. Maximal growth of adaptation occurs when the input rate matches the response time of the spatial mapping function.