Peroral transgastric endoscopic ligation of fallopian tubes with long-term survival in a porcine model

Gastrointest Endosc. 2005 Mar;61(3):449-53. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5107(04)02828-7.


Background: We have previously reported the feasibility and safety of the peroral transgastric endoscopic approach for diagnostic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, and gastrojejunostomy with long-term survival in a porcine model. This approach eliminates incisions of the abdominal wall, providing a less invasive alternative to diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy. We now report successful performance of peroral endoscopic transgastric ligation of Fallopian tubes with long-term survival in a porcine model.

Methods: Six female 50-kg pigs had general anesthesia and irrigation of the stomach with an antibiotic solution. Gastric puncture was performed with needleknife electrocautery followed by balloon dilatation of the tract with 20-mm TTS dilating balloon (Microvasive). A standard upper endoscope that underwent high-level disinfection and gas sterilzation was advanced into the peritoneal cavity through a sterile overtube. Both Fallopian tubes were identified and one was ligated using Olympus Endoloops. The other patent tube served as a control. Tubal patency was evaluated by hysterosalpingogram before and after ligation. After a follow-up period of 2-3 weeks, the pigs were sacrificed for postmortem examination.

Results: The Fallopian tubes were easily accessed, identified and ligated in all 6 pigs. In each pig, fluoroscopy confirmed complete obstruction of the ligated tube with preserved patency of the other tube. All pigs survived well and ate heartily without any ill-effects. Postmortem examination did not reveal any peritonitis or intra-abdominal adhesions. The Endoloops were in place with complete obstruction of the ligated tubes and patency of the controls. Histopathologic examination of the tubes showed chronic inflammatory infiltrates without abscesses.

Conclusions: The peroral endoscopic transgastric approach to ligation of the Fallopian tubes with long-term survival is technically feasible and safe in a porcine model. The endoscopic transgastric approach to the peritoneal cavity has potential for a wide array of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endoscopy / methods*
  • Fallopian Tubes*
  • Female
  • Ligation / methods
  • Survival Rate
  • Swine
  • Time Factors