The pharmacological effects of the neuroprotective drug vinpocetine, administered intravenously in a 14-day long treatment regime, on the cerebral blood flow and cerebral glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients (n=13) were studied with positron emission tomography in a double-blind design. The regional and global cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) as well as vital physiological parameters, clinical performance scales, and transcranial Doppler parameters were measured before and after the treatment period in patient groups treated with daily intravenous infusion with or without vinpocetine. While the global CMRglc values did not change markedly as a result of the infusion treatment with (n=6) or without (n=7) vinpocetine, the global CBF increased and regional CMRglc and CBF values showed marked changes in several brain structures in both cases, with more accentuated changes when the infusion contained vinpocetine. In the latter case the highest rCBF changes were observed in those structures in which the highest regional uptake of labelled vinpocetine was measured in other PET studies (thalamus and caudate nucleus: increases amounting to 36% and 37%, respectively). The findings indicate that a 2-week long intravenous vinpocetine treatment can contribute effectively to the redistribution of rCBF in chronic ischemic stroke patients. The effects are most pronounced in those brain regions with the highest uptake of the drug.