Induction and analysis of aggregates in a liquid IgG1-antibody formulation

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Apr;59(3):407-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2004.12.004.


The objective of this study was to compare different agitation stress methods (stirring in Reacti Vials versus horizontal shaking) in their effect on protein destabilization, to assess several analytical techniques (light obscuration, turbidimetric and light scattering analysis) for detection of aggregates of various sizes and to evaluate the protecting effect of polysorbate 80 on protein aggregation. A monoclonal IgG1 antibody was used as model protein. Both mechanical stress methods can provoke aggregate formation. The method of stirring induces particles in the range of 10-25 microm comparable to shaking stress. However, stirred samples show a much higher absorbance and reveal a second particle species in DLS analysis, suggesting that stirring stress induces a higher amount of smaller protein aggregates. Addition of polysorbate 80 protects the antibody against aggregation. Only in stirred samples a slight increase in sub-visible particles and turbidity was noted. However, a greater extent of aggregation products was detected by DLS as compared to surfactant-free formulations. Thus, polysorbate 80 appears to stabilise small aggregates and prevents further proceeding of the aggregation process. The induction of aggregates by stirring stress in Reacti Vials analysed by absorbance measurement seems to be a good combination for high-throughput formulation studies.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry*
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / instrumentation
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / analysis*
  • Immunoglobulin G / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • Pharmaceutical Solutions / analysis*
  • Pharmaceutical Solutions / chemical synthesis*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Pharmaceutical Solutions