Retinoblastoma is the most common eye cancer in children. Pilot studies of chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma have been reported by several groups, using different combinations, dosages, schedules, and durations of carboplatin, etoposide, or teniposide, with or without vincristine, and with or without cyclosporine to counteract multidrug resistance. All studies of chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma have included consolidation by focal therapy, with or without radiation. Chemotherapy alone reduces tumor size but does not cure retinoblastoma. Focal therapy, consisting of photocoagulation, thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy, is necessary to consolidate chemotherapy response.