Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is used as prophylaxis against cardiovascular diseases. The effect of aspirin on inflammation and oxidative stress, processes known to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, are not fully known. The cyclooxygenase(COX)-mediated inflammatory indicator prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha), cytokine-mediated inflammatory indicators (interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein), and oxidative stress indicators (8-iso-PGF2alpha, tocopherols) were quantified in men with daily 75 mg of aspirin (n=175) and control men (n=464), all of age 77, in a cross-sectional study. Men treated with aspirin had decreased levels of urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha than controls (P<0.01), independent of possible cardiovascular risk factors. Aspirin-treated men had increased levels of alpha-tocopherol than controls (P<0.05). This is the first study to indicate that low-dose aspirin treatment is associated with decreased levels of PGF2alpha. This observation suggests a possible COX-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose aspirin, which should be further confirmed by intervention studies.