In recent times, many developing countries including Bangladesh not only have to cope with infectious diseases and malnutrition but also with new health problems, such as asthma, cancer and accidents. The emergence of chronic diseases and injuries has not been seen as an important health issue to date. The work presented here has the objectives of conceptualizing the dynamic changes in child mortality within the framework of the health transition, to provide a basis for projection of future mortality and disability in children in Bangladesh. This paper reviews a number of reports and published articles related to the causes of child deaths in Bangladesh. These include: 1) Year books of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; 2) UNICEF reports; 3) Reports of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research, Bangladesh; and 4) Reports of Institute of Child and Mother Health. Bangladesh clearly has been progressing along its epidemiological transition. At the current stage, chronic diseases and injuries have overtaken infectious diseases as leading causes of child death. Injury has been identified as a major cause of child death in Bangladesh, and is emerging as the leading cause of child mortality, similar to what is occurring in other developing countries. For these countries, in the advancing stages of their health transition, more research aimed at understanding the dynamic change of child health priorities is urgently needed for appropriate policy and planning.