Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review

Chest. 2005 Mar;127(3):984-1005. doi: 10.1378/chest.127.3.984.


Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia are disorders that are encountered in both pediatric and adult medicine. Despite increasing recognition of these disease processes, there remains some uncertainty regarding their identification, causes, and treatment. This article is intended to be a comprehensive review of both the adult and pediatric forms of the diseases, and includes sections on the historical aspects of the disorders, and their classification, associated conditions, histopathology, and natural history. We also review the various modalities that are used for diagnosis as well as the state of the art of treatment, including airway stent placement and surgical intervention.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bronchial Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Bronchial Diseases* / etiology
  • Bronchial Diseases* / therapy
  • Cartilage Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cartilage Diseases / etiology
  • Cartilage Diseases / therapy
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Tracheal Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Tracheal Diseases* / etiology
  • Tracheal Diseases* / therapy