Intestinal segments are used to replace or reconstruct the urinary bladder when it has become dysfunctional or develops life-threatening disease such as cancer. The quality of life in patients with intestinal segments used to either enlarge or completely replace the native bladder is adversely affected by recurrent urinary tract infections, excessive mucus production and the occasional development of malignancy. At present, there is no reliable method of predicting or noninvasively monitoring these patients for the development of these complications. The characterisation of proteins secreted into urine from the transposed intestinal segments could serve as important indicators of these clinical complications. Urine is an ideal source of material in which to search for biomarkers, since it bathes the affected tissues and can be obtained relatively easily by noninvasive methods. The urinary proteome of patients with intestinal segments transposed into the urinary tract is unknown and we present the first global description of the urinary protein profile in these patients. Sample preparation is a critical step in achieving accurate and reliable data. We describe a method to prepare urinary proteins that was compatible with their subsequent analysis using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This method helped to overcome some of the technical problems encountered in analysing urine from this patient cohort. The method was used to analyse urinary proteins recovered from five healthy controls and ten patients with intestinal segments transposed into the urinary tract. Four low molecular weight proteins were found to be present in nine out of ten for the patient group but for none of the healthy controls. The four proteins were identified as lithostathine-1 alpha precursor, pancreatitis associated protein-1 precursor, liver fatty acid binding protein and testis expressed protein-12. The role of these proteins as potential biomarkers of intestinal cell activity within the reconstructed bladder is discussed.