Substance use disorders in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder

J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;66(3):309-16; quiz 404-5. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v66n0306.


Background: Little is known about substance use disorders (SUDs) in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Although studies have examined SUD comorbidity in BDD, no previous studies have examined clinical correlates of SUD comorbidity.

Method: We examined rates and clinical correlates of comorbid SUDs in 176 consecutive subjects with DSM-IV BDD (71% female; mean +/- SD age = 32.5 +/- 12.3 years). Comorbidity data were obtained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. BDD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD, and delusionality (insight) was assessed with the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. Quality of life and social/occupational functioning were examined using the Social Adjustment Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Range of Impaired Functioning Tool. All variables were compared in BDD subjects with and without lifetime and current SUDs. Data were collected from January 2001 to June 2003.

Results: 48.9% of BDD subjects (N = 86) had a lifetime SUD, 29.5% had lifetime substance abuse, and 35.8% had lifetime substance dependence (most commonly, alcohol dependence [29.0%]). 17% (N = 30) had current substance abuse or dependence (9.1% reported current substance abuse, and 9.7% reported current dependence). 68% of subjects with a lifetime SUD reported that BDD contributed to their SUD. There were far more similarities than differences between subjects with a comorbid SUD and those without an SUD, although those with a lifetime SUD had a significantly higher rate of suicide attempts (p = .004).

Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that SUDs are very common in individuals with BDD. Subjects with and without a comorbid SUD were similar in most domains that were examined.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Comorbidity
  • Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Social Adjustment
  • Somatoform Disorders / diagnosis
  • Somatoform Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Somatoform Disorders / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology