The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] is a critical signal transducer in eukaryotic cells. However, the physiological roles of the type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKIs) that synthesize PI(4,5)P(2) are largely unknown. Here, we show that the alpha isozyme of PIPKI (PIPKIalpha) negatively regulates mast cell functions and anaphylactic responses. In vitro, PIPKIalpha-deficient mast cells exhibited increased degranulation and cytokine production after Fcepsilon receptor-I cross-linking. In vivo, PIPKIalpha(-/-) mice displayed enhanced passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis. Filamentous actin was diminished in PIPKIalpha(-/-) mast cells, and enhanced degranulation observed in the absence of PIPKIalpha was also seen in wild-type mast cells treated with latrunculin, a pharmacological inhibitor of actin polymerization. Moreover, the association of FcepsilonRI with lipid rafts and FcepsilonRI-mediated activation of signaling proteins was augmented in PIPKIalpha(-/-) mast cells. Thus, PIPKIalpha is a negative regulator of FcepsilonRI-mediated cellular responses and anaphylaxis, which functions by controlling the actin cytoskeleton and dynamics of FcepsilonRI signaling. Our results indicate that the different PIPKI isoforms might be functionally specialized.