Development of angiogenesis inhibitors to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. Current status and future perspective

Front Biosci. 2005 May 1;10:1415-39. doi: 10.2741/1629.

Abstract

Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels is a crucial mechanism required for both tumor growth and metastasis. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the angiogenesis process have led to the discovery of a variety of pharmaceutical agents with antiangiogenic activity. The potential application of these angiogenesis inhibitors is currently under intense clinical investigation. Decades of investigation suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, particularly VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, or kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR), play a critical role in tumor-associated angiogenesis. KDR, therefore, represents a good target for therapeutic intervention. A number of agents designed selectively for targeting KDR are being evaluated in various phases of clinical trials in cancer patients. This manuscript reviews briefly the biology of VEGF family of ligands and receptors and of KDR in particular. The attempts to develop effective KDR antagonists, including small molecules, antibodies and others, for therapeutic purposes are discussed comprehensively with special emphasis on tumor angiogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Drug Design
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects*
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / physiology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / chemistry
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / immunology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / physiology

Substances

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2