Common regulatory elements in the polycystic kidney disease 1 and 2 promoter regions

Eur J Hum Genet. 2005 May;13(5):649-59. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201392.


The PKD1 and PKD2 genes are mutated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a systemic disease, with the formation of renal cysts as main clinical feature. The genes are developmentally regulated and aberrant expression of PKD1 or PKD2 leads to cystogenesis. To date, however, the transcription factors regulating expression of these genes have hardly been studied. To identify conserved putative transcription factor-binding sites, we cloned and characterized the 5'-flanking regions of the murine and canine Pkd1 genes and performed a multispecies comparison by including sequences from the human and Fugu rubripes orthologues as well as the Pkd2 promoters from mouse and human. Sequence analysis revealed a variety of conserved putative binding sites for transcription factors and no TATA-box element. Nine elements were conserved in the mammalian Pkd1 promoters: AP2, E2F, E-Box, EGRF, ETS, MINI, MZF1, SP1, and ZBP-89. Interestingly, six of these elements were also found in the mammalian Pkd2 promoters. Deletion studies with the mouse Pkd1 promoter showed that a approximately 280 bp fragment is capable of driving luciferase reporter gene expression, whereas reporter constructs containing larger fragments of the Pkd1 promoter showed a lower activity. Furthermore, mutating a potential E2F-binding site within this 280 bp fragment diminished the reporter construct activity, suggesting a role for E2F in regulating cell cycle-dependent expression of the Pkd1 gene. Our data define a functional promoter region for Pkd1 and imply that E2F, EGRF, Ets, MZF1, Sp1, and ZBP-89 are potential key regulators of PKD1 and PKD2 in mammals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 5' Flanking Region / genetics
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Dogs
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / genetics*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • TRPP Cation Channels
  • Takifugu
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proteins
  • TRPP Cation Channels
  • Transcription Factors
  • polycystic kidney disease 1 protein
  • polycystic kidney disease 2 protein