Electrolyte balance is a critical issue in managing comorbid conditions in both diseased and elderly patients. Patients with hypertension and diabetes need careful regulation of their calcium and magnesium levels, whereas in patients with congestive heart failure, sodium and potassium levels also are critical. Herein we report the outcome of a round table discussion at which issues of renal magnesium clearance, magnesium and arrhythmic risk, ion balance in heart failure, diabetes, ischemic stress, oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathy of magnesium deficiency, roles of magnesium and potassium in bone metabolism and the aging population, and the role of electrolyte balance in hypertension have been discussed. In all these issues the maintaining homeostasis of potassium and magnesium is critical and the various therapies that impact on retaining these ions were discussed. Hallmark studies, i.e., Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial and Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction, have provided insight into treatment of patients with cardiovascular and progressive heart failure. These studies and the availability of potassium- and magnesium-sparing diuretics for use in these disorders provide relevant perspectives for treatment.