Our previous results demonstrated that expressing the GTPase ras homolog gene family, member B (RhoB) in radiosensitive NIH3T3 cells increases their survival following 2 Gy irradiation (SF2). We have first demonstrated here that RhoB expression inhibits radiation-induced mitotic cell death. RhoB is present in both a farnesylated and a geranylgeranylated form in vivo. By expressing RhoB mutants encoding for farnesylated (RhoB-F cells), geranylgeranylated or the CAAX deleted form of RhoB, we have then shown that only RhoB-F expression was able to increase the SF2 value by reducing the sensitivity of these cells to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. Moreover, RhoB-F cells showed an increased G2 arrest and an inhibition of centrosome overduplication following irradiation mediated by the Rho-kinase, strongly suggesting that RhoB-F may control centrosome overduplication during the G2 arrest after irradiation. Overall, our results for the first time clearly implicate farnesylated RhoB as a crucial protein in mediating cellular resistance to radiation-induced nonapoptotic cell death.