HnRNP A3 genes and pseudogenes in the vertebrate genomes

J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2005 Apr 1;303(4):259-71. doi: 10.1002/jez.a.164.


The hnRNP A/B type proteins are abundant nuclear factors that bind to Pol II transcripts and are involved in numerous RNA-related activities. To date most data on the hnRNP A/B family have been obtained with recombinant proteins and cell cultures. Further characterization can result from an examination of the impact of various modifications in intact functional loci; however, such characterization is hampered by the presence of numerous and widely dispersed hnRNP A/B-related sequences in the mammalian genome. We have found hnRNP A3, a poorly recognized member of the hnRNP A/B family, among candidate transcription factors that interact with the regulatory region of the Hoxc8 gene and screened the human and mouse genomes for genes that encode hnRNP A3. We demonstrate that the sequence reported previously as the human hnRNP A3 gene (Accession number S63912) and located on 10p11.1 belongs to a processed pseudogene of the functional intron-containing locus HNRPA3, which we have identified on 2q31.2. We have also identified its murine orthologs on mouse chromosome 2D and rat chromosome 3q23. Alternative splices were revealed at the N-terminus and in the middle of hnRNP A3. 14 and 28 additional loci in the human and mouse genome, respectively, were mapped and identified as hnRNP A3 processed pseudogenes. In addition, we have found and compared hnRNP A3 orthologous genes in Gallus gallus, Xenopus tropicalis, and Danio rerio. The present in silico analysis serves as a necessary step toward a further functional characterization of hnRNP A3.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2 / genetics*
  • Computational Biology
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Gene Components
  • Genome*
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / genetics*
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / physiology
  • Humans
  • Mice / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pseudogenes / genetics
  • Rats / genetics*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • DNA, Complementary
  • HNRNPA3 protein, human
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • hnrnpa3 protein, mouse