The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of enamel matrix proteins with or without the use of deproteinized bovine bone influences bone formation when used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration (GBR). Twenty rats, divided into four groups of five animals each, were used in this study. Group A1: A hemispherical PTFE capsule was placed empty on the lateral aspect of the mandibular ramus (GBR). At the contralateral side of the jaw, the capsule was filled with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) before its placement. The healing period was 60 days. Group A2: The animals were treated in the same manner as in Group A1 but with a healing period of 120 days. Group B1: The animals were treated in the same manner as in Group A1 with the difference that deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles were packed in the capsule. At the contralateral side of the jaw, the capsule was filled with a mixture of EMD and DBBM. The healing period was 60 days. Group B2: The same treatment as in B1 but with a healing period of 120 days. The histological analysis revealed that in Groups A1 and A2 newly formed bone was covering a significant part of the empty capsules (GBR). The use of EMD in the capsule did not offer any added benefit to the use of the capsule alone in terms of new bone formation. At Groups B1 and B2, the presence of DBBM and/or EMD did not positively affect the amount of new bone formation. It can be suggested that neither the application of EMD nor the use of DBBM or the combination of EMD and DBBM results in enhanced amounts of bone formation in comparison with the GBR procedure alone.