Nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release in normal-weight men and women

Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):111-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-861160.


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a monosaccharide/fiber preload (galactose/guar gum) in combination with a standard breakfast (GG) on plasma GLP-1, insulin, glucose, free fatty acid concentrations, and appetite ratings (satiety, hunger, fullness and desire to eat) in 30 normal-weight subjects. GG was compared to water in combination with the standard breakfast (W). We also tested for differences in GLP-1 release in the described conditions between genders. In women, postprandial plasma GLP-1 concentrations after GG were significantly increased compared to W (p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for DeltaGLP-1 after GG was related to body fat (%BF) in women (r = 0.48; p = 0.02), but not in men. The rise in plasma insulin was delayed, and plasma glucose concentration was blunted after GG. Deltasatiety was significantly related to DeltaGLP-1 (W). In conclusion, galactose with guar gum increased and extended the GLP-1 release due to breakfast in women, but not in men. This may be partly explained by %BF, which is higher in women than in men since GLP-1 release appears to be related to %BF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Eating
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Galactans / administration & dosage*
  • Galactose / administration & dosage*
  • Glucagon / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mannans / administration & dosage*
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptide Fragments / blood*
  • Plant Gums
  • Postprandial Period / physiology*
  • Protein Precursors / blood*
  • Sex Factors


  • Galactans
  • Mannans
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Plant Gums
  • Protein Precursors
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon
  • guar gum
  • Galactose