Background: The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP 2.0) cross-sectional, community-based study, targeted individuals at increased risk for kidney disease and measured blood glucose, creatinine, and hemoglobin.
Methods: KEEP 2.0 screening data were used to determine the prevalence of anemia by level of kidney function and diabetes status. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) was calculated using serum creatinine values, and categorized as > or =90, 60-89, 30-59 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL in men and in women aged >50 years, and <11 g/dL in women < or =50 years. Diabetes was defined as participant-reported diagnosis, fasting glucose >125 mg/dL, or nonfasting glucose >200 mg/dL.
Results: Data were available on 5380 participants screened from August 2000 through December 2001. Diabetes was present in 26.9% of participants, and anemia in 7.7%; 15.9% of participants had at least moderately reduced kidney function (EGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). In participants with diabetes, anemia prevalence at the 4 levels of descending EGFR were 8.7%, 7.5%, 22.2%, and 52.4%, compared with 6.9%, 5.0%, 7.9%, and 50.0% in persons without diabetes. In a multivariable model, participants of non-white race/ethnicity, those with diabetes and those with EGFR <30 or 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had significantly increased odds of anemia. In addition, a significant sex-diabetes interaction was identified; odds of anemia were 4-fold greater in men than women with diabetes relative to sex-matched participants without diabetes.
Conclusion: Diabetes was independently correlated with anemia, more so in men than women, and may be linked to premature expression of anemia in persons with moderate reductions in kidney function.