Diabetes is strongly associated with coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial disease, as well as with microangiopathy. In those with diabetes, the extent of macrovascular disease increases and atherosclerotic plaques are more prone to rupture. Both hormonal abnormalities (insulin resistance that is typically present for many years before the onset of type 2 diabetes) and metabolic abnormalities contribute. Multi-targeted intensive therapy is imperative; however, unfortunately it is underutilized. Functional and structural derangements contribute to impaired arterial and ventricular compliance predisposing to congestive heart failure that is increasingly recognized to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes.