Patient-related barriers to pain management: the Icelandic Barriers Questionnaire II

J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 Mar;29(3):273-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2004.06.015.


The Barriers Questionnaire-II (BQ-II) is used to evaluate eight attitudinal barriers to cancer pain management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Icelandic BQ-II (IBQ-II). Icelandic adults (n=244) completed the IBQ-II, the Brief-Pain-Inventory, and demographic questions. Half the responders were male (52%), and 42.8% had pain on the day of data collection. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 34.73 (11.78) years and education of 15.08 (3.69) years. Factor analysis of the IBQ-II supported three factors. The alpha was 0.90. The mean (SD) IBQ-II total score was 2.32 (0.78), on a scale of 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating stronger barriers. IBQ-II total scores were inversely related to education (r=-0.21; P<0.01), and positively related to least pain (r=0.24; P<0.05), average pain (r=0.23; P<0.05), and pain interference with life activities (r=0.22; P<0.05) for those who had pain. There is support for reliability, validity, and feasibility of the IBQ-II.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Humans
  • Iceland
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain / psychology*
  • Pain Management*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*