Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Apr 29;330(1):46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.116.


Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used as a home remedy for the general promotion of health and longevity in East Asia. The dried powder of G. lucidum, which was recommended as a cancer chemotherapy agent in traditional Chinese medicine, is currently popularly used worldwide in the form of dietary supplements. We have previously demonstrated that G. lucidum induces apoptosis, inhibits cell proliferation, and suppresses cell migration of highly invasive human prostate cancer cells PC-3. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on the prostate cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of G. lucidum on angiogenesis related to prostate cancer. We found that G. lucidum inhibits the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells. These effects are caused by the inhibition of constitutively active AP-1 in prostate cancer cells, resulting in the down-regulation of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from PC-3 cells. Thus, G. lucidum modulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt kinases in PC-3 cells, which in turn inhibits the activity of AP-1. In summary, our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A