Immunization with a bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B DNA vaccine induces cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice and cattle

J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr;86(Pt 4):887-898. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.80533-0.


Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered to be important in protection against and recovery from viral infections. In this study, several approaches to induce cytotoxicity against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) were evaluated. Vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with BHV-1 induced a strong humoral, but no CTL, response, which may be due to downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In contrast, vaccinia virus expressing glycoprotein B (gB) elicited a weaker antibody response, but strong cytotoxicity, in mice. As an approach to inducing both strong humoral and cellular immune responses, a plasmid vector was then used to express gB. Both antibody and CTL responses were induced by the plasmid encoding gB in C57BL/6 and C3H mice, regardless of the type of vector backbone. This demonstrated that DNA immunization induces a broad-based immune response to BHV-1 gB. Interestingly, removal of the membrane anchor, which resulted in secretion of gB from transfected cells, did not result in reduced cytotoxicity. Here, it is shown that, compared with the cell-associated counterpart, plasmid-encoded secreted protein may induce enhanced immune responses in cattle. Therefore, calves were immunized intradermally with pMASIAtgB, a plasmid encoding the secreted form of gB (tgB), using a needle-free injection system. This demonstrated that pMASIAtgB elicited both humoral responses and activated gamma interferon-secreting CD8+ CTLs, suggesting that a DNA vaccine expressing tgB induces a CTL response in the natural host of BHV-1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / immunology
  • Cattle Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Herpesviridae Infections / immunology
  • Herpesviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Herpesviridae Infections / veterinary
  • Herpesvirus 1, Bovine / immunology*
  • Herpesvirus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Herpesvirus Vaccines / immunology
  • Immunization / veterinary
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Plasmids
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*
  • Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology
  • Viral Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Proteins / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Herpesvirus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Viral Proteins
  • bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoproteins