Aim: To establish an association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and the development of gallstone disease.
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit in a university hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 245 subjects, comprising 65 subjects with gallstones (36 women, 29 men) and 180 controls (79 women and 101 men without gallstones). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Unconditional logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariate) was used to calculate the risk of gallstone disease associated with the presence of at least three of the criteria (Adult Treatment Panel III). Analyses were adjusted for age and sex.
Results: Among 245 subjects, metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of gallstone disease subjects, compared with 17.2% of the controls, adjusted by age and gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.79; 95%CI, 1.46-5.33; P = 0.002), a dose-dependent effect was observed with each component of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.36, 95%CI, 0.72-7.71; P = 0.16 with one component and OR = 5.54, 95%CI, 1.35-22.74; P = 0.02 with four components of metabolic syndrome). Homeostasis model assessment was significantly associated with gallstone disease (adjusted OR = 2.25; 95%CI, 1.08-4.69; P = 0.03).
Conclusion: We conclude that as for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, gallstone disease appears to be strongly associated with metabolic syndrome.