The activation of protein kinase B (or Akt) plays a central role in the stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin. Currently, however, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the role of this kinase in bringing about this effect. For example, we do not know precisely where in the GLUT4 trafficking pathway this kinase acts. Nor do we know which protein substrates are responsible for mediating the effects of protein kinase B, although two recently identified proteins (AS160 and PIKfyve) may play a role. This paper addresses these important questions by reviewing recent progress in the field.