Rapid improvement of recalcitrant disseminated granuloma annulare upon treatment with the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, infliximab

Br J Dermatol. 2005 Mar;152(3):552-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06371.x.


Granuloma annulare (GA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, which is characterized clinically by erythematous plaques preferentially localized to the distal extremities, although disseminated variants exist. In light of the chronic relapsing nature of GA and lack of satisfactory treatment options, we initiated treatment with infliximab in a patient with chronic disseminated GA that was recalcitrant to standard treatment. The 59-year-old female patient with insulin-dependent diabetes had experienced GA lesions for more than 4 years despite various systemic and topical treatments. Systemic glucocorticoids were not a therapeutic option because of the preexisting unstable insulin-dependent diabetes. Infliximab was administered intravenously at 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) at weeks 0, 2 and 6 and thereafter at a monthly interval for an additional 4 months. Most of the GA plaques resolved within 4-6 weeks, leaving postinflammatory brownish macules. Newly arising plaques disappeared within 2 weeks and new GA lesions were not observed during the entire observation period of more than 16 months. Infliximab may be an additional option in the treatment of recalcitrant forms of GA as well as in other chronic granulomatous skin disorders, such as sarcoidosis and necrobiosis lipoidica.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Granuloma Annulare / drug therapy*
  • Granuloma Annulare / pathology
  • Humans
  • Infliximab
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Proteins / therapeutic use*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Dermatologic Agents
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors
  • Infliximab