Renal failure is a marker of poor outcome in the general population. Renal failure after percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) is associated with an increased hazard of in-hospital mortality. We hypothesized that post-PCI renal insufficiency would be a predictor of long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI who survive for over 30 days after the procedure. A retrospective analysis was conducted from a registry of 9,067 patients undergoing PCI at our center from 1997 to 2001. A rise in creatinine by 1 mg/dl from baseline was defined as post-PCI renal insufficiency. Vital status was assessed using Social Security Death Index. There were a total of 996 deaths over a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years. In a multivariate analysis, history of recent acute myocardial infarction, older age, insulin-dependent diabetes, baseline creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dl, and presence of mitral regurgitation were associated with post-PCI renal insufficiency. Developing post-PCI renal insufficiency was associated with a 4.31-fold hazard of mortality in univariate analysis and a 1.77-fold hazard after adjustment for known predictors of mortality after PCI. The 1-year survival in patients with renal failure was 70.3% +/- 3.91%, compared to a survival of 93.6% +/- 0.27% in those without any post-PCI renal insufficiency (P < 0.0001). Acute renal insufficiency after PCI is a strong and independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients who survived for 30 days after the procedure.
Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.