Multiple sclerosis

Immunol Rev. 2005 Apr;204:208-31. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2005.00240.x.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex genetic disease associated with inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) white matter and is thought to be mediated by autoimmune processes. Clonal expansion of B cells, their antibody products, and T cells, hallmarks of inflammation in the CNS, are found in MS. The association of the disease with major histocompatibility complex genes, the inflammatory white matter infiltrates, similarities with animal models, and the observation that MS can be treated with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies support the hypothesis that autoimmunity plays a major role in the disease pathology. This review discusses the immunopathology of MS with particular focus given to regulatory T cells and the role of B cells and antibodies, immunomodulatory therapeutics, and finally new directions in MS research, particularly new methods to define the molecular pathology of human disease with high-throughput examination of germline DNA haplotypes, RNA expression, and protein structures that will allow the generation of a new series of hypotheses that can be tested to develop better understandings and therapies for this disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Autoantibodies / immunology
  • Central Nervous System / immunology
  • Genetic Variation / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Multiple Sclerosis / genetics
  • Multiple Sclerosis / immunology*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / pathology*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Autoantibodies