Long-term neuropsychiatric disorders on efavirenz-based approaches: quality of life, psychologic issues, and adherence

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 15;38(5):560-5. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000147523.41993.47.


Background: Efavirenz has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, although little is known about its long-term toxicity.

Objective: To assess neuropsychiatric disorders and their relation to efavirenz plasma levels as well as quality of life, psychologic status, and adherence in HIV-infected patients on long-term efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: Cross-sectional study comparing 60 patients on an efavirenz-based approach (EFV group) and 60 patients on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (PI group) for at least 1 year. Adverse events, efavirenz plasma levels, quality of life, psychologic status, and adherence were assessed.

Results: The mean time on treatment was 91.1 +/- 39.5 weeks in the EFV group and 119.9 +/- 67.4 weeks in the PI group. Mild dizziness, sadness, mood changes, irritability, lightheadedness, nervousness, impaired concentration, abnormal dreams, and somnolence were reported more frequently in the EFV group than in the PI group (P < 0.05). Forty-nine of 60 patients presented with therapeutic efavirenz plasma levels (range: 1.0-4.0 mg/L). Efavirenz plasma levels were similar in subjects with and without neuropsychiatric disorders. No significant differences were found between the EFV group and the PI group regarding quality of life and psychologic status. Sixty percent of patients in the EFV group and 55% in the PI group reported adherence >/=95%.

Conclusions: Mild and clinically tolerable neuropsychiatric disorders may persist in patients after a mean of 2 years using an efavirenz-based approach. Quality of life and psychologic status remained good in both study groups. Interventions to enhance long-term adherence should be applied in clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology*
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission
  • Adult
  • Alkynes
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-HIV Agents / blood
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzoxazines
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / psychology*
  • Cognition Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Employment
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mood Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Oxazines / adverse effects
  • Oxazines / blood
  • Oxazines / therapeutic use*
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk-Taking
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Alkynes
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Benzoxazines
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Oxazines
  • efavirenz