After 12 mo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation (2 groups received CLA as part of a triglyceride or as the free fatty acid, and 1 group received olive oil as placebo), 134 of the 157 participants who concluded the study were included in an open study for another 12 mo. The goals of the extension study were to evaluate the safety [with clinical chemistry analyses and reported adverse events (AEs)] and assess the effects of CLA on body composition [body fat mass (BFM), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral mass (BMM)], body weight, and BMI. All subjects were supplemented with 3.4g CLA/d in the triglyceride form. Circulating lipoprotein(a) and thrombocytes increased in all groups. There was no change in fasting blood glucose. Aspartate amino transferase, but not alanine amino transferase, increased significantly. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were reduced, whereas HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were unchanged. The AE rate decreased compared with the first 12 mo of the study. Body weight and BFM were reduced in the subjects administered the placebo during the initial 12 mo study (-1.6 +/- 3.2 and -1.7 +/- 2.8 kg, respectively). No fat or body weight changes occurred in the 2 groups given CLA during the initial 12 mo. LBM and BMM were not affected in any of the groups. Changes in body composition were not related to diet and/or training. In conclusion, this study shows that CLA supplementation for 24 mo in healthy, overweight adults was well tolerated. It confirms also that CLA decreases BFM in overweight humans, and may help maintain initial reductions in BFM and weight in the long term.