Systematic identification and characterization of anthocyanins by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in common foods in the United States: fruits and berries

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2589-99. doi: 10.1021/jf048068b.


Anthocyanins were systematically identified and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with diode array detection in common fruits from U.S. food markets and other commercial sources. Of the 25 different fruits that were screened, 14 fruits were found to contain anthocyanins; the number of anthocyanins varied from 2 in peaches and nectarines to 31 in Concord grape. The individual anthocyanins were identified by comparing their mass spectral data and retention times with those of standards and published data. In all of the samples analyzed, only 6 common anthocyanidins, delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin, were found. In addition to the well-known major anthocyanins, a number of minor anthocyanins were identified for the first time. Some possible guidelines that help to identify anthocyanins in foods with complex anthocyanin composition were deduced and discussed. For the first time, this paper presents complete anthocyanin HPLC profiles and MS spectral data of common fruits using the same uniform experimental conditions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Food Analysis / methods*
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / methods*
  • United States
  • Vitis / chemistry


  • Anthocyanins