To clarify whether polymorphisms G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene were related to microalbuminuria, we performed a case-control study in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Polymorphisms G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene were examined with genomic DNA obtained from 116 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 30 and 300 mg/g of creatinine) (microalbuminuria group), and 232 patients with normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio <30 mg/g of creatinine) (normoalbuminuria group). The genotype distribution and T allele frequency of G1704T (9.9%) and S allele frequency of G82S (14.2%) in the microalbuminuria group did not significantly differ from those (T allele frequency, 8.4%; S allele frequency, 12.3%) in the normoalbuminuria group. There were no differences among the genotypes of G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene regarding age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, and serum lipid levels. These data suggest that G1704T and G82S polymorphisms of the RAGE gene are not related to microalbuminuria in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.