Objective: To describe surgical complications, and patient and kidney transplant survival rates in children who have had a kidney transplant.
Method: Data were analysed concerning the children who had been treated with a renal transplantation in the period 1985-2001 because of terminal renal insufficiency in the Emma Children's Hospital of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, with arbitrary end date October 7, 2002.
Results: In the study period, 55 primary kidney transplantations were performed on 24 girls and 31 boys. 13 living related and 42 post mortem transplantations were performed. The extra-peritoneal approach was performed in all recipients. Up to October 7, 2002, 14 surgical complications (25%) developed: 4 cases of renovascular thrombosis, 4 urinary leakages, 6 urethral strictures, 1 urethral necrosis, 5 haematomas and 3 lymphoceles. 6 patients lost their grafts due to surgical complications (11%); 4 due to thrombosis, 1 due to urethral necrosis and 1 due to haemorrhage or haematoma. Due to hypertension secondary to the underlying kidney disease 2 patients died within one year after transplantation from hypertensive encephalopathy and cerebral bleeding respectively. The one- and five-year graft survival was 83% and 74% for living related transplantations respectively, and for post mortem transplantations 78% and 68% respectively. The main causes of graft loss were chronic rejection (9/21; 43%), acute rejection (4/21; 19%), thrombosis (4/21; 19%) and surgical complications (2/21; 10%). Primary nonfunction was the only factor with a negative prognostic value for graft survival.