Microdermabrasion is a simple, safe, office cosmetic procedure in which aluminum oxide crystals or other abrasive substances are blown onto the face, then vacuumed off, using a single handpiece. This procedure has rapidly become widely utilized for a variety of cosmetic objectives, including the improvement of photoaging, hyperpigmentation, acne, scars and stretch marks. Despite its widespread use, little is known about its actual mechanism of action. The few published studies suggest that patients and physicians alike report a mild benefit when microdermabrasion is utilized for photoaging. Histologic evaluation reveals little actual abrasion of the skin with the procedure, yet changes are seen in the dermis. Given the safety, simplicity and patient satisfaction associated with microdermabrasion, it is likely to remain a popular treatment.