Changes in the proteomic profile during differentiation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells stimulated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor/interleukin-4 and lipopolysaccharide

Proteomics. 2005 Apr;5(5):1186-98. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200400988.


Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in the immune response. We used the proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes that occur during differentiation of DCs from monocytes (Mo) stimulated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor/interleukin-4 (GM-CSF/IL-4) and during the maturation of immature DCs stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Sixty-three differentially expressed proteins (+/- two-fold) were unambiguously identified with sequence coverage greater than 20%. They corresponded to only 36 different proteins, because 11 were present as 38 electrophoretic forms. Some proteins such as tropomyosin 4 and heat shock protein 71 presented differentially expressed electrophoretic forms, suggesting that many of the changes in protein expression that accompany differentiation and maturation of DCs occur in post-translationally modified proteins. The largest differences in expression were observed for actin (21-fold in Mo), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (20-fold in Mo), vimentin (eight-fold in immature DCs), lymphocyte-specific protein 1 (12-fold in mature DCs) and thioredoxin (14-fold in mature DCs). Several proteins are directly related to functional and morphological characteristics of DCs, such as cytoskeletal proteins (cytoskeleton rearrangement) and chaperones (antigen processing and presentation), but other proteins have not been assigned specific functions in DCs. Only a few proteins identified here were the same as those reported in proteomic studies of DCs, which used different stimuli to produce the cells (GM-CSF/IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). These data suggest that the DC protein profile depends on the stimuli used for differentiation and especially for maturation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology*
  • Dendritic Cells / cytology
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects*
  • Dendritic Cells / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-4 / pharmacology*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monocytes / physiology
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Proteome / analysis*


  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Proteins
  • Proteome
  • Interleukin-4
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor