A respiratory therapist-directed protocol for managing inpatients with asthma and COPD incorporating a long-acting bronchodilator

J Asthma. 2005 Feb;42(1):29-34. doi: 10.1081/jas-200044765.


This prospective study was designed to determine whether incorporating formoterol into a standardized respiratory therapist-directed protocol for administering bronchodilators to hospitalized patients with obstructive airway disease would reduce health care resource use and provide a safety advantage. All patients admitted to Washington Hospital Center with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CODP) are administered bronchodilators under a standardized respiratory therapist-directed protocol. Formoterol was the primary bronchodilator for the intervention period from January through March 2002, with levalbuterol, albuterol, and ipratropium available as needed. Results for the intervention period were compared against two historical control periods. From January through March 2000, the bronchodilators in the protocol were albuterol and ipratropium, and from January through March 2001 levalbuterol, albuterol, and ipratropium were available. Health care resource use was determined by the number of bronchodilator treatments administered per admission. Costs (adjusted to 2002 dollars) for supplies, therapist time, and drugs were calculated for the three time periods. Adverse events related to bronchodilator administration were recorded in a standardized manner for all three time periods. Bronchodilator treatments per admission, respiratory therapist visits per admission, and time spent per admission, and cost per bronchodilator treatment significantly decreased in 2002. Significantly fewer adverse events related to bronchodilator treatments were reported in 2002 than 2000. The addition of formoterol to a respiratory therapist-directed protocol for administering bronchodilators reduced health care resource use and adverse events for patients with asthma and COPD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albuterol / administration & dosage
  • Asthma / drug therapy*
  • Asthma / economics
  • Bronchodilator Agents / administration & dosage
  • Bronchodilator Agents / economics
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Ethanolamines / administration & dosage
  • Ethanolamines / economics
  • Ethanolamines / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Formoterol Fumarate
  • Health Care Costs
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Inpatients
  • Ipratropium / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers
  • Patient Compliance
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / drug therapy*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / economics


  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Ethanolamines
  • Ipratropium
  • Albuterol
  • Formoterol Fumarate