Previous studies report conflicting results concerning the potential significance of thrombophilic genotypes in postarthroplasty venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study assessed thrombophilic genotypes, haemostatic and clinical variables as independent risk factors for VTE postarthroplasty. A total number of 569 patients undergoing elective lower limb arthroplasty at a single centre were prospectively studied. All patients were interviewed and had blood samples collected preoperatively. Bilateral lower limb ultrasonography was performed at day 7 +/- 2 postoperatively in all patients (ventilation/perfusion lung scanning in symptomatic patients only). The incidence of inhospital postoperative VTE was 26%. In univariate analysis - increased age, knee arthroplasty, recent surgery, general anaesthesia, shorter operation time, non-receipt of blood transfusion and differences in surgical practice (including use of pneumatic calf compression, surgical drains and postoperative bandaging techniques) were significantly associated with VTE. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations were not significant risk factors for VTE, and of all haemostatic variables tested, only median activated partial thromboplastin time showed significant difference between VTE and non-VTE patients (34 s vs. 33 s). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased age, knee arthroplasty and individual surgeon's routine practices were the only significant independent risks for VTE; hence routine preoperative blood screening for a potential hypercoaguable state is not indicated in this surgical setting.