Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, provides a model system for the study of metal ion homeostasis. Metalloregulatory proteins serve as the arbiters of metal ion sufficiency and regulate the expression of metal homeostasis pathways. In B. subtilis, uptake systems are regulated by the highly selective metal-sensing repressors Fur (iron), Zur (zinc), and MntR (manganese). Metal efflux systems are regulated by MerR and ArsR family homologs which, by contrast, can be rather non-specific with regard to metal selectivity. A Fur homolog, PerR, functions as an Fe(II)-dependent peroxide stress sensor and regulates putative metal transport and storage functions.