Selection criteria for patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures: current status

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005 Apr;16(4):449-55. doi: 10.1097/01.RVI.0000149508.64029.02.


The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure has a well-established role in the management of patients with complications of portal hypertension such as variceal bleeding or refractory ascites. Several clinical variables have been described to be associated with a poor prognosis after a TIPS procedure, including the presence of uncontrollable ascites, the number of sclerotherapy sessions to control a bleeding episode, the use of drugs for hemodynamic support, the use of balloon tamponade to control bleeding, the need for an emergency TIPS procedure, the need for mechanical ventilation, prothrombin time, increased serum creatinine, increased serum bilirubin, encephalopathy, and sepsis. In addition, several scoring systems have been developed and applied to patients undergoing TIPS procedures in an attempt to improve patient selection criteria for this invasive procedure. This article reviews the most important scoring systems that have been developed and applied to patients undergoing emergency or elective TIPS procedures, with particular emphasis on the prognostic index designed for patients undergoing emergency TIPS procedures and the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score designed for patients undergoing elective TIPS procedures. The most practical application of these scoring systems is probably that, with the information provided, the operator is able to discuss with referring physicians, patients, and family members the expected outcomes of this challenging procedure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ascites / classification
  • Elective Surgical Procedures
  • Emergencies
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / classification
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / classification
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Portal / classification
  • Patient Selection*
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index