Exposure to mineral dust was studied among construction workers (N = 437) with the aid of a questionnaire and a chest X-ray examination of the lungs. The results of the questionnaire showed that 81% of the construction workers had been exposed to asbestos. Exposure had occurred in all of the occupational groups studied. Pleural plaques and/or lung fibrosis (ILO greater than or equal to 1/1) were found in 26% of the examined workers; the prevalence varied from 18 to 40% among the various occupational groups. Comparison with a representative sample of the Finnish male population from another investigation indicates that the frequency of lung fibrosis (ILO greater than or equal to 1/1) is at least two times higher among the examined construction workers than among the general population. It seems likely that exposure to asbestos dust can be considered an etiological factor for an appreciable number of the X-ray findings.