Polymorphisms of the receptor of advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and the development of nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients

Diabetes Metab. 2005 Feb;31(1):35-9. doi: 10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70164-7.


Objectives: We investigated the association of the RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products) exon3 gene polymorphisms with stages of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

Methods: The RAGE exon 3 genotype was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) procedure in 487 type 1 diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy subdivided into four groups according to their level of renal involvement and in 351 control subjects (GENEDIAB study).

Results: We reported here three main low frequency dimorphisms, previously submitted to data banks, Gly82Ser, Val89 CTC/CTG, and Arg77Cys. The genotype distribution of these polymorphisms was not statistically different in type 1 diabetic patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.37). Among the three described polymorphisms, only the RAGE Gly82Ser genotype frequency was significantly increased in the group with advanced nephropathy (11%) defined by a chronic renal failure compared to the three others groups: no nephropathy, 5%; incipient (microalbuminuria) 5%; established (macroalbuminuria), 2%) (P=0.04). The 82 Ser allele was identified as an independent risk marker for the stage of advanced nephropathy: adjusted odds ratio 3.17(95% CI 1,32-7,85, p=0.008).

Conclusion: These data suggest that the 82 Ser allele of the RAGE gene is a risk allele for developing advanced nephropathy. This suggests that some RAGE gene polymorphisms may be associated with progression to diabetic advanced nephropathy in Caucasian type 1 diabetic patients.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Arginine
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cysteine
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / genetics*
  • Exons / genetics
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Glycine
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics*
  • Serine


  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Serine
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glycine