Seasonality could have a strong influence on the radiological impact of environmental radioactive contamination. Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 131l) and those that mainly enter the food chain by direct contamination (e.g., 137Cs) are especially important in this context. In particular, the contamination of cereals is influenced by seasonality. For temperate latitudes it is generally true that radioactive contamination during winter, when the fields lie fallow and the domestic animals are stabled, will result in a significantly lower radiological impact than if a similar contamination were to take place in the summer shortly before harvesting. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was strongly influenced by seasonality.