Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. II. The design of a CAPs exposure system for biometric telemetry monitoring

Inhal Toxicol. 2005 Apr;17(4-5):189-97. doi: 10.1080/08958370590912743.


We modified, assembled, tested, and validated the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) developed by Sioutas et al. (1999) for use in a subchronic experiment that involved exposure of mice in vivo and of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Since the labor-intensive nose-only exposure regimen is not an option in a long-term experiment, a whole-body exposure mouse chamber was designed specifically for use with the VACES. The exposure system concsists of a stainless-steel (SS) tub with 32 cubicles (1 mouse per cubicle) separated by perforated SS sheets. The tops of these cubicles are covered with perforated plastic sheets to allow telemetry monitoring during the exposure. In each exposure chamber, perforated aluminum tubes are used to distribute CAPs evenly (within 2% difference) throughout the exposure chamber. The exhaust consists of perforated aluminum tubes covered with a urine shield. The modification to the original design of the VACES facilitated the operation of the system in a subchronic study. Mass flow controllers maintain a constant flow rate into the exposure chambers. For a sham control exposure, the identical system is used, except that a HEPA filter at the inlet to the VACES removes 98% of ambient particles. The entire system allow for simultaneous exposure of 64 mice to CAPs, with an equal number of sham-expose mice as controls. Telemetry receives have been modified so that 16 mice per group with electrocardiograph (EKG) transmitters can be monitored during exposure. Furthermore, a BioSampler is used to collect CAPs (one sample per day) for the in vitro exposures. In this article, the assessments of flow and particle distribution of the exposure chamber as well as the performance of the system during the subchronic exposure experiment are described.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols*
  • Air Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Biometry
  • Equipment Design
  • Inhalation Exposure*
  • Mice
  • Particle Size
  • Telemetry
  • Toxicity Tests / instrumentation*


  • Aerosols
  • Air Pollutants