The ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease

Annu Rev Med. 1992;43:487-95. doi: 10.1146/


Ophthalmopathy is an integral component of Graves' disease. It usually appears at the same time as hyperthyroidism, and is characterized by proptosis (exophthalmos), periorbital and conjunctival edema, eye muscle dysfunction, and on occasion corneal ulceration or optic neuropathy. Graves' ophthalmopathy, like Graves' hyperthyroidism, is an autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms that initiate and maintain it are not known. Most patients can be treated conservatively, but a few require anti-inflammatory or surgical therapy to relieve symptoms and preserve vision.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / analysis
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graves Disease / diagnosis*
  • Graves Disease / immunology
  • Graves Disease / therapy
  • Humans
  • Oculomotor Muscles / immunology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Autoantibodies