Preliminary experience with low concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: a potential regulator in preimplantation mouse embryo development and apoptosis

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2005 Jan;22(1):25-32. doi: 10.1007/s10815-005-0817-9.


Purpose: To investigate the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the development of preimplantation mouse embryos.

Methods: Mouse 2-cell embryos were collected and cultured in P-1 medium supplemented with GM-CSF at different concentrations. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, expression Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA in blastocyst were evaluated in the GM-CSF group and control group. Apoptosis detection was performed using the in situ apoptosis detection kit in mouse blastocysts. The statistical significance of the data was analyzed using t-test and chi-square test.

Results: The development of blastocyst increased to 89% in the addition of GM-CSF (0.125 ng/mL), compared to controlled group (80%). The number of cells staining for apoptosis was lower in GM-CSF group than that in the control group. Bcl-2 expression was found to be upregulated in blastocysts in the GM-CSF supplemented group compared to the control group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that GM-CSF might be an important regulator in embryo development.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Blastocyst / drug effects
  • Blastocyst / physiology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Embryonic Development / drug effects*
  • Embryonic Development / physiology
  • Female
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Pregnancy
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein


  • Bax protein, mouse
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • RNA, Messenger
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor