Full-body kinematic characteristics of the maximal instep soccer kick by male soccer players and parameters related to kick quality

Sports Biomech. 2005 Jan;4(1):59-72. doi: 10.1080/14763140508522852.


Many studies try to understand fundamental soccer skills, most focusing on kicking. However, a full picture of an efficient kick remains incomplete owing to constraints of test designs and difficulties that arise in synchronizing and analyzing information generated by multiple assessment techniques. Previous scientific studies may be generally categorized as: two-dimensional kinematic analysis using high-speed cameras, muscle activity studies using electromyography, three-dimensional analysis of the kicking-leg using a partial-body model, and kinetic studies using force measurements and modelling. No existing inquiries have used full-body three-dimensional motion capture and modelling to examine kicking. The current study remedies this deficiency and defines a full-body model capable of revealing more detailed characteristics of kicking. Additionally, it reveals effects of long-term training by comparing novices with skilled athletes and explores new parameters that have potential to aid quantitative evaluations of skill. Results show effective upper-body movement to be a key factor in creating better initial conditions for a more explosive muscle contraction during kicking. It permits a more powerful quasi whip-like movement of the kicking leg. Finally, the timely change of distance between the kick-side hip and the non-kick-side shoulder provides a quantitative means of measuring kick quality.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Leg / physiology*
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Posture / physiology
  • Soccer / physiology*
  • Task Performance and Analysis*