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, 42 (2), 164-74

Roles of Isoamylase and ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Starch Granule Synthesis in Rice Endosperm


Roles of Isoamylase and ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Starch Granule Synthesis in Rice Endosperm

Yasushi Kawagoe et al. Plant J.


Amyloplast-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor amyloplast division and starch granule synthesis in the developing endosperm of transgenic rice. Two classical starch mutants, sugary and shrunken, contain reduced activities of isoamylase1 (ISA1) and cytosolic ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, respectively. Dividing amyloplasts in the wild-type and shrunken endosperms contained starch granules, whereas those in sugary endosperm did not contain detectable granules, suggesting that ISA1 plays a role in granule synthesis at the initiation step. The transition from phytoglycogen to sugary-amylopectin was gradual in the boundary region between the inner and outer endosperms of sugary. These results suggest that the synthesis of sugary-amylopectin and phytoglycogen involved a stochastic process and that ISA1 activity plays a critical role in the stochastic process in starch synthesis in rice endosperm. The reduction of cytosolic ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in shrunken endosperm did not inhibit granule initiation but severely restrained the subsequent enlargement of granules. The shrunken endosperm often developed pleomorphic amyloplasts containing a large number of underdeveloped granules or a large cluster of small grains of amyloplasts, each containing a simple-type starch granule. Although constriction-type divisions of amyloplasts were much more frequent, budding-type divisions were also found in the shrunken endosperm. We show that monitoring GFP in developing amyloplasts was an effective means of evaluating the roles of enzymes involved in starch granule synthesis in the rice endosperm.

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