Complications from surgical procedures are common and must be taken into account when assessing the risks and benefits of a particular treatment approach. Common acute risks of tracheostomy include bleeding, airway loss, damage to adjacent structures, and failure of the chosen technique to achieve successful airway placement. The frequency and severity of these occurrences depends on several factors. These include the specific approach to tracheostomy, the skill and experience of the operator, and patient anatomic and physiologic factors. The incidence of undesired outcomes during tracheostomy cannot be exactly predicted because of the interaction of the above issues. This paper will consider some of the common and less common acute complications of several of the usual techniques for temporary tracheostomy placement in critically ill patient.