Does the consumption of caloric and non-caloric beverages with a meal affect energy intake?

Appetite. 2005 Apr;44(2):187-93. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2004.11.003.


Beverages are frequently consumed with meals, but their influence on meal energy intake is not understood. We hypothesized that differences in the energy, nutrient content, and sensory properties of beverages consumed with a meal would affect intake. Forty-four women ate lunch in the laboratory once a week for 6 weeks. Lunch was consumed ad libitum, and was served with one of five beverages that were consumed in full, or no beverage. The beverages were 360 g of water, diet cola, regular cola, orange juice, and 1% milk. Results showed an effect of beverage type on meal intake (p<0.0001). Energy intake did not differ among the non-caloric and no-beverage conditions. Similarly, energy intake from lunch (including beverage) did not differ among the caloric beverage conditions. When a caloric beverage (156 kcal; 653 kJ) was consumed with the meal, energy intake was 104+/-16 kcal (435+/-67 kJ) greater than when a non-caloric beverage or no beverage was consumed. Subjects' ratings of fullness after lunch did not differ among the beverage conditions, but were lower for the no-beverage condition. These results show that when caloric beverages are consumed with a meal they add to energy intake from food, without significantly affecting satiety ratings.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Beverages*
  • Carbonated Beverages
  • Citrus sinensis
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk
  • Satiation
  • Taste
  • Water


  • Water